Every Civil Engineer must Know before going at site there some basic standards which is used at site. Here some of the basic Data for civil we are sharing.

*Design Mix:*

**M10 ( 1 : 3.92 : 5.62)**

Cement : 210 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 708 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 472 Kg/ M3

River sand : 823 Kg/ M3

Total water : 185 Kg/ M3

Fresh concrete density: 2398 Kg/M3

**M20 ( 1 : 2.48 : 3.55)**

Cement : 320 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 683 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 455 Kg/ M3

River sand : 794 Kg/ M3

Total water : 176 Kg/ M3

Admixture : 0.7%

Fresh concrete density: 2430 Kg/ M3

**M25 ( 1 : 2.28 : 3.27)**

Cement : 340 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 667 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 445 Kg/ M3

River sand : 775 Kg/ M3

Total water : 185 Kg/ M3

Admixture : 0.6%

Fresh concrete density: 2414 Kg/ M3

Note: sand 775 + 2% moisture, Water 185 -20.5 = 164 Liters,

Admixture = 0.5% is 100ml

**M30 ( 1 : 2 : 2.87)**

Cement : 380 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 654 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 436 Kg/ M3

River sand : 760 Kg/ M3

Total water : 187 Kg/ M3

Admixture : 0.7%

Fresh concrete density: 2420 Kg/ M3

Note: Sand = 760 Kg with 2% moisture (170.80+15.20)

**M35 ( 1 : 1.79 : 2.57)**

Cement : 410 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 632 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 421 Kg/ M3

River sand : 735 Kg/ M3

Total water : 200 Kg/ M3

Admixture : 0.7%

Fresh concrete density: 2400 Kg/ M3

Note: sand = 735 + 2%, Water = 200- 14.7 = 185.30,

Admixture = 0.7%

**M40 ( 1 : 1.67 : 2.39)**

Cement : 430 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 618 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 412 Kg/ M3

River sand : 718 Kg/ M3

Water Cement ratio : 0.43

Admixture : 0.7%

Note: Sand = 718 + Bulkage 1%

**M45 ( 1 : 1.58 : 2.26)**

Cement : 450 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 626 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 417 Kg/ M3

River sand : 727 Kg/ M3+ Bulkage 1%

Water Cement ratio : 0.43

Admixture : 0.7%

**M50 ( 1 : 1.44 : 2.23)**

Cement : 450 Kg/ M3

20 mm Jelly : 590 Kg/ M3

12.5 mm Jelly : 483 Kg/ M3

River sand : 689 Kg/ M3 + Bulkage 12%

Water Cement ratio : 0.36 (188 Kg)

Admixture : 1.20%3

Micro silica : 30 Kg

Super flow 6.7% of cement

*WEIGHT OF MATERIALS*

50 mm J bolt : 751 No’s / 52 Kg

40 mm J bolt : 883 No’s / 54 Kg

2” nails : 385 No’s / Kg

3” nails : 118 No’s / Kg

4″ nails : 72 No’s / Kg

Binding wire : 170 rings /Kg

*SIMPLEX FORMULA:-*

**U = (N /L) x {(W x H) / (1 + S)} x Sq.rt {(L/50)}**

U = Ultimate load in tones

N = Number of blows

L = Pile length in feets

W = Weight of hammer in tones

H = Height of fall in feet.

S = Set for 1 blows in Inch

Safe load = (ultimate load/ 2.5)

Factor of safety = 2.5

10 blows = below 10 MM

*Thread couplers:- (For Column lapping)*

Couplers for reinforcing bars 20 mm to 28 mm crimped sleeve *Slump IS 456*

Lightly reinforced 25 – 75 mm

Heavily reinforced 75 – 100 mm

Trench fill (insitu & Tremie) 100 – 150 mm

(For Termie vibrator not required)

*Durability:-*

- The Environment
- Cover to Steel
- Type and quality of the constituent material
- Cement content and Water Cement ratio.
- Workmanship to obtain full compaction.
- Compaction and efficient curing.

*Accuracy of measuring equipment in batching plant.*

Cement : + 2%

Aggregate : + 3%

Admixture : + 3%

Water : + 3%

Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing.(site Mixing)

Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing.(site Mixing)

*TOLERANCE:-*

**Form work:-**

In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size

In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size

In depth = + 0.05 D (specified thickness).

**Reinforcement:-**

For effective depth D < 200mm = + 10mm

For effective depth D > 200mm = + 15mm

For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm

Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.

*TOLERANCE:-*

**Form work:-**

In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size

In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size

In depth = + 0.05 D (specified thickness).

**Reinforcement:-**

For effective depth D < 200mm = + 10mm

For effective depth D > 200mm = + 15mm

For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm

Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.

*TOLERANCE ON DIA IN LENGTH:-*

0-25mm = + 0.5 %

25-35mm = + 0.6 %

35-50mm = + 0.8 %

*TOLERANCE ON WEIGHT PER METRE:-*

0-10mm = +7%

10-16mm = + 5%

16 and above = + 3%

*TOLERANCE FOR CUTTING LENGTH :-*

- A) When the specified length is not given = + 75mm (or) – 25 mm
- B) When the min. length is specified = + 50 mm (or) – 0 mm

*GENERAL:-*

- Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.
- Chair spacing maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1 Sq.m
- For dowels rod minimum of 12 mm dia should be used.
- Chairs minimum of 12 mm dia bars to be used.
- Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
- Minimum bars for square column is 4 No’s and 6 No’s for circular column.
- Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
- Minimum thickness of slab is 125 mm
- Dimension tolerance for cubes + 2 mm.
- Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50m.

11.Lap slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

12.Water absorption not more than 15 %.

13.PH value of the water should not be less than 6.

14.Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2

15.In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT

16.In soil filling as per IS code 100 sqm should take 3 sample for core cutting test

*DENSITY OF MATERIALS:-*

Weight of Bricks = 1600-1920 Kg/M3

Weight of Block work = 1920 Kg/M3

Weight of R.C.C = 2310 – 2700 Kg/M3

*CURING:-*

Super Sulphate cement : 7 days

Ordinary Portland cement OPC : 10 days

Minerals & Admixture added cement : 14 days

*STRIPPING TIME ( De-Shuttering):-*

For columns, walls, vertical form works : 16-24 hrs

Soffit formwork to slabs : 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)

Soffit to beams props : 7 days props to refix after removal.

Spanning up to 4.50m : 7 days

Spanning over 4.50m : 14 days

Arches spanning up to 6m : 14 days

Arches spanning over 6m : 21 days

*CUBE SAMPLES:-*

1 – 5 M3 : 1 No.

6 – 15 M3 : 2 No’s

16 – 30 M3 : 3 No’s

31 – 50 M3 : 4 No’s

Above 50 M3 : 4 + 1 No of addition sample for each 50 M3

*TEST RESULTS OF SAMPLES:-*

The test results of the samples shall be the average of the strength of three specimens.

The individual variation should not be more than + 15 % of the average.

If more the results of the sample are invalid.

*COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:-*

3 days : 45 %

7 days : 67 – 70 %

14 days : 85 %

28 days : 100% +

*APPROXIMATE COST PER SQ.FT (MANTRI PROJECT)*

**HIGH RISE BUILDING:-**

Structure = 979 / Sft

(Concreting, Block work, Plastering, Flooring, Dado, painting)

Electrical works (Modular switches) = 172 / Sft

Plumbing (P.H.E) = 93 / Sft

Fire Fighting = 13 / Sft

Lift = 34 / Sft

Common Area = 94 / Sft

External development (Landscape, road works, drains etc.,) = 87 / Sft

*TEST FOR SILT & CLAY:-*

1.Take 200 ml measuring cylinder fill sand up to 100ml mark

- Add 150ml of water and shake well
- Allow it to settle for 3 hrs.
- Measure the total height and height of clay.
- Calculate the clay and silt in total sand
- Clay and Silt should not exceed 3% by weight (or) 8-10% by volume
- For crushed sand Clay and Silt should not exceed 15% by weight

*ORGANIC IMPURITIES:-*

- Don’t dried the specimen before testing
- Take 250 ml measuring cylinder.
- Add 75 ml of water with 3% of Sodium Hydroxide. Fill sand layer to 125 ml
- Make the volume up to 200ml by adding more of sodium hydroxide solution
- Shake well allow it to stand for 24 hrs
- If the solution becomes darker than straw yellow colour then the sand has to be tested for further by casing mortar cubes for 7 & 28 days is not less than 95%.
- If the solution is lighter or just straw yellow colour the sand can be used for concreting without any further test.

*QUANTITIES REQUIRED:-*

Plastering (CM 1:3) = 1.50 bags / 10 m2

Plastering (CM 1:5) = 1.05 bags / 10 m2

Ceiling Plastering (CM 1:3) = 48 kg / 10 m2

Brick work (CM 1:5) = 86 Kg / 10 m3

Brick work (CM 1:6) 9” thick = 80.64 Kg / 10 m3

Brick work (CM 1:3) 4½” thick = 15.46 Kg / 10 m3

Lime for white washing = 10 Kg/100 m2

Painting = 10 ltr/ 100 m2

Distemper 1st coat = 6.5 Kg / 100 m2

Distemper 2nd coat = 5.0 kg / 100 m2

Snowcem 1st coat = 30 Kg / 100 m2

Snowcem 2nd coat = 20 Kg / 100 m2

Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2

Weathering Course = 7.68 Kg / m2

Flooring = 8.10 kg / m2

Pressed tiles for weathering course (CM 1:3) = 7.68 Kg / 10 m2

Granolithic floor finish = 8.10 Kg / 10 m2

*WATER CEMENT RATIO:-*

M20 = 0.55

M25 = 0.50

M30 = 0.45

M35 = 0.45

M40 = 0.40

*SPACING OF BARS:-*

- Provide the dia of the bar, if the dia of the bar are equal.
- Provide the dia of the larger bar, if the dia are unequal.
- 5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

*CONVERSION:-*

1 Acre = 4046.72 m2

1 cent = 40.4672 m2

*COVER TO MAIN REINFORCEMENT:-*

Column : 40 mm (D>12mm)

Column : 25 mm (D= 12mm)

Beam : 25 mm

Slab : 15 mm (or) not less than dia of the bar.

Footing : 50 mm

Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm

*CO-EFFICIENT FOR PAINTING:-*

Partly paneled and glazed doors : 0.80 times the door or window area.

Collapsible gates : 1.50

Corrugated sheeted steel doors : 1.25

Rolling shutters : 1.10

Expanded metal hard drawn steel : 1.00

Open palsied fencing and gates, brace, rails : 1.00

Corrugated iron sheeting : 1.14

A.C corrugated sheeting : 1.20

A.C Semi corrugated sheeting : 1.10

Wire gauged shutters : 1.00

Paneled framed and braced doors, windows : 1.30

Ledged and battened doors and windows : 1.30

Flush doors : 1.20

Partly paneled doors : 1.00

Fully glazed doors : 0.80

Fully louvered : 1.80

Trellis work : 2.00

Curved or enriched : 2.00

Weather boarding : 1.20

Wooded single roofing : 1.10

Boarding with cover tilets and match boarding : 1.05

Tile and slate battering : 0.80

Plain sheeted steel : 1.10

Fully glazed steel : 0.50

*Calculation of Materials:-*

**a) For 1 m****3****of concrete Mix 1:2:4 (M15)**

Add 50% for wet concrete = 1.50 m3

= 1.50/(1+2+4) = 0.214 m3

For 1 m3 = 30 bags of cement required (1440/50) say 30 bags

Cement = 0.214 x 30 = **6.42 bags**

Sand = 0.214 x 2 = **0.428 m****3**

Aggregate = 0.214 x 4 = **0.856 m****3**

**b) Wall plastering in CM 1:4 of 12 mm thick for 100 m****2****:-**

Volume = 100 x (12/1000) = 1.20 m3

Add 30 to 35% as bulking of sand = 0.36 m3

Add 20 as wastage of sand = 0.312 m3

Total = **1.872 m****3**

= (1.872/1+4) = 0.374 m3

Cement = 0.374 x 30 = **10.77 bags**

Sand = 0.374 x 4 = **1.496 m****3**

**c) For 100 m****3****of solid Block masonry in CM 1:6 mix 8” thick:-**

Volume = 100 x 0.2 (Thickness of wall)

= 20 m3

No. of blocks required = 20/(0.4 x 0.2 x 0.2)

= 12502 No’s

Volume of mortar = 20-{0.39 x 0.19 x 0.19 x 1250}

= 20 – 17.598

= 2.40 m3

Note: 200mm – 10 mm for mortar thickness = 190 mm

Blocks =17.598/(0.4 x 0.2 x 0.2)

=1100 No’s

Add 2% wastage = 22

Total = 1122 No’s

Increase by 25% for dry mortar = 3 M3

= 3/ (1+6)

= 0.429 M3

Cement = 0.429 x 30 = 12.50 bags

Sand = 0.429 x 6 = 2.57 M3

Blocks =1122 No’s

*STEEL:-*

- Weight of rod per meter length =
**d****2****/ 162**where d in mm - “L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of
**300mm** - Hook for stirrups is
**9D**for one side - For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is
**69D** - No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
- Design strength is M 40, target strength is 1.25 x 40 =
**50 Mpa**